Organisations involved in Internal Security are:


Strategies for accosting with internal security situations are:

  1. Disrupt
  2. Divert
  3. Delay
  4. Deter
  5. Destroy

As a stacked Venn diagram it can be represented as:


The State and Central Police forces play the key role in maintaining law and order. The ratio of available police to per 100,000 people for the whole country is about 130. The international average is about 270. There is no substitute for the policeman who walks the streets. He is the gatherer of intelligence, the enforcer of the law, the preventer of the offence, the investigator of the crime and the standard-bearer of the authority of the State, all rolled into one. If he is not there, it means that all these functions are not performed. That – the failure to perform essential police functions – is where the rot began and that is where the rot lies even today. The first step, therefore, in devising a new security system in the country is to recruit more policemen and policewomen.

The police stations in the country are, today, virtually unconnected islands. Thanks to telephones and wireless, and especially thanks to mobile telephones, there is voice connectivity between the police station and senior police officers, but that is about all. There is no system of data storage, data sharing and accessing data. There is no system under which one police station can talk to another directly. There is no record of crimes or criminals that can be accessed by a Station House Officer, except the manual records relating to that police station. Realising the gross deficiency in connectivity, the Central Government is implementing an ambitious scheme called “Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS).” The goals of the system are to facilitate collection, storage, retrieval, analysis, transfer and sharing of data and information at the police station and between the police station and the State Headquarters and the Central Police Organisations.

If intelligence-gathering is the corner stone of fighting insurgency or insurrection or terror, the foot solider cannot work in isolation. It is the myriad bits of information flowing from different sources that, when sifted, analysed, matched, correlated and pieced together, become actionable intelligence. That function must be performed, first and foremost, at the police station. To sum up, we must have more police stations and, at the police station level, we must have more constables, some of whom are exclusively for gathering intelligence. We must also have a system of community policing, a toll-free service, and a network to store, retrieve and access data relating to crimes and criminals.

Some of the important Committees and Commissions that had a bearing on Internal Security Issues include the

  1. Gore Committee on Police Training (1971-73);
  2. National Police Commission (1977- 81) headed by Shri DharmVira;
  3. Rebeiro Committee on Police Reforms (1998);
  4. Padmanabhaiah Committee on Police Reforms (2000); the Task Force on Internal Security, appointed by the Group of Ministers on National Security (2000-01);
  5. Malimath Committee on Reforms of Criminal Justice System (2002-03).
  6. Review Committee was appointed by the Ministry of Home Affairs in the year 2005 to take stock of all pending recommendations of the various Commissions and Committees on Police Reforms that were awaiting implementation and to recommend further course of action. The Review Committee had short listed 49 recommendations which were considered critical to the process of police reforms and that the review process is continuing.
  7. Soli Sorabjee Committee for drafting a model Police Act (2006)
  8. Committee on Draft National Policy on Criminal Justice chaired by Prof., (Dr.) N.R. Madhva Menon (2007) also provided further inputs and made some useful recommendations.
  9. The Supreme Court too in Writ Petition (Civil) No.310/1996 in Prakash Singh & Others Vs. Union of India & Others had in the year 2006 issued interim orders containing several directions pertaining to matters such as the tenures of the Police Officers, separation of the investigation wing from the other routine police duties, selection process of senior appointments and so on.
  10. Second Administrative Reforms Commission chaired by M. VeerrappaMoily, has in June, 2007 submitted a comprehensive report on “Public Order”, in which a detailed and extremely well researched chapter has been devoted to the subject of Police Reforms.

Several salient areas affecting the efficiency of the Police establishment in the country were examined by the aforesaid Commissions, Committees and the Hon’ble Supreme Court. These included , poor civil police to population ratio, long delays in filling up of vacancies, amending the Police Act, 1861 in harmony with the needs and requirements of the times, separation of investigation and prosecution assistance wings from the other normal police duties and equipping the police force to keep pace with the times to handle the new and emerging crimes such as Terrorism, Cyber Crimes, sophisticated economic crimes, crimes pertaining to violation of human rights etc.

Besides, other areas needing attention such as improvement of working conditions of the force (several studies have pointed out that an average policeman has to work upto 12 to 14 hours a day and many times even seven days a week) including housing needs, the strength of the personnel required to man a Police Station (need based), the number of Police Stations needed in the country with minimum required infrastructure, developing a model recruitment system, replacing the outdated equipment with a more modern and sophisticated one, insulating the police from political and other extraneous influences, improvement of the negative image of the police in general public, improvement in the training facilities and procedures etc. were also addressed at length by these Commissions/Committees and their reports are available with the Government.

A modified ‘Modernization of State Police Forces’ scheme was started by the central government in 2000-01. One of the objectives was to help police forces in meeting the emerging challenges to internal security in the form of terrorism, Naxalismetc. The scheme aims to modernize police forces in terms of:

  • Mobility (including purchase of bullet proof and mine proof vehicles)
  • Weaponry
  • Communication Systems
  • Training
  • Forensic Science Laboratory/ Finger Printing Bureau
  • Equipments
  • Buildings

Under this scheme, States have been clubbed into different categories and Centre-State cost sharing is category specific. Since 2005-06, States have been categorized as category ‘A’ and ‘B’ with 100% and 75% Central funding respectively. All the North Eastern States, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim have been placed in category ‘A’ and thus, are entitled to receive 100% Central assistance for implementation of their annual approved plans.

Recently, CAG decided to evaluate the working of the scheme and commissioned ‘performance audit’ reviews covering select general category and special category States. Each review covers a contiguous five year period between 2000 and 2007, but varies across selected states.

For the periods under review, each state had a plan outlay (the total amount proposed to be spent in modernizing the state’s police forces). However, in most cases, the actual release of funds fell significantly short of this outlay – in some cases the Centre did not contribute its share, in others the States lagged behind. For instance, in the case of Bihar, the Centre released only 56% of its share; while in the case of Rajasthan and West Bengal, the States did not release any funds at all.

The graph below shows the actual releases by the Centre and the States (as percentages of their share in the proposed outlays):

Further, even the funds that were released were not fully utilized. Thus, the amount finally spent fell significantly short of the initial proposal. The graph below shows the actual expenditure by State:

Following are some of the other main findings from the CAG report:

Table 1:  Summary of main findings in the CAG audit for different states for Modernisation of State Police Forces

Sources: CAG Compendium of Performance Audit Reviews on Modernisation of Police Force; PRS.

Note: The audit has been done broadly from 2000 to 2007. Consequently, the period of audit for different states may vary.

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