Organisations involved in Internal Security are:


Strategies for accosting with internal security situations are:

  1. Disrupt
  2. Divert
  3. Delay
  4. Deter
  5. Destroy

As a stacked Venn diagram it can be represented as:


The State and Central Police forces play the key role in maintaining law and order. The ratio of available police to per 100,000 people for the whole country is about 130. The international average is about 270. There is no substitute for the policeman who walks the streets. He is the gatherer of intelligence, the enforcer of the law, the preventer of the offence, the investigator of the crime and the standard-bearer of the authority of the State, all rolled into one. If he is not there, it means that all these functions are not performed. That – the failure to perform essential police functions – is where the rot began and that is where the rot lies even today. The first step, therefore, in devising a new security system in the country is to recruit more policemen and policewomen.

The police stations in the country are, today, virtually unconnected islands. Thanks to telephones and wireless, and especially thanks to mobile telephones, there is voice connectivity between the police station and senior police officers, but that is about all. There is no system of data storage, data sharing and accessing data. There is no system under which one police station can talk to another directly. There is no record of crimes or criminals that can be accessed by a Station House Officer, except the manual records relating to that police station. Realising the gross deficiency in connectivity, the Central Government is implementing an ambitious scheme called “Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS).” The goals of the system are to facilitate collection, storage, retrieval, analysis, transfer and sharing of data and information at the police station and between the police station and the State Headquarters and the Central Police Organisations.

If intelligence-gathering is the corner stone of fighting insurgency or insurrection or terror, the foot solider cannot work in isolation. It is the myriad bits of information flowing from different sources that, when sifted, analysed, matched, correlated and pieced together, become actionable intelligence. That function must be performed, first and foremost, at the police station. To sum up, we must have more police stations and, at the police station level, we must have more constables, some of whom are exclusively for gathering intelligence. We must also have a system of community policing, a toll-free service, and a network to store, retrieve and access data relating to crimes and criminals.

Some of the important Committees and Commissions that had a bearing on Internal Security Issues include the

  1. Gore Committee on Police Training (1971-73);
  2. National Police Commission (1977- 81) headed by Shri DharmVira;
  3. Rebeiro Committee on Police Reforms (1998);
  4. Padmanabhaiah Committee on Police Reforms (2000); the Task Force on Internal Security, appointed by the Group of Ministers on National Security (2000-01);
  5. Malimath Committee on Reforms of Criminal Justice System (2002-03).
  6. Review Committee was appointed by the Ministry of Home Affairs in the year 2005 to take stock of all pending recommendations of the various Commissions and Committees on Police Reforms that were awaiting implementation and to recommend further course of action. The Review Committee had short listed 49 recommendations which were considered critical to the process of police reforms and that the review process is continuing.
  7. Soli Sorabjee Committee for drafting a model Police Act (2006)
  8. Committee on Draft National Policy on Criminal Justice chaired by Prof., (Dr.) N.R. Madhva Menon (2007) also provided further inputs and made some useful recommendations.
  9. The Supreme Court too in Writ Petition (Civil) No.310/1996 in Prakash Singh & Others Vs. Union of India & Others had in the year 2006 issued interim orders containing several directions pertaining to matters such as the tenures of the Police Officers, separation of the investigation wing from the other routine police duties, selection process of senior appointments and so on.
  10. Second Administrative Reforms Commission chaired by M. VeerrappaMoily, has in June, 2007 submitted a comprehensive report on “Public Order”, in which a detailed and extremely well researched chapter has been devoted to the subject of Police Reforms.

Several salient areas affecting the efficiency of the Police establishment in the country were examined by the aforesaid Commissions, Committees and the Hon’ble Supreme Court. These included , poor civil police to population ratio, long delays in filling up of vacancies, amending the Police Act, 1861 in harmony with the needs and requirements of the times, separation of investigation and prosecution assistance wings from the other normal police duties and equipping the police force to keep pace with the times to handle the new and emerging crimes such as Terrorism, Cyber Crimes, sophisticated economic crimes, crimes pertaining to violation of human rights etc.

Besides, other areas needing attention such as improvement of working conditions of the force (several studies have pointed out that an average policeman has to work upto 12 to 14 hours a day and many times even seven days a week) including housing needs, the strength of the personnel required to man a Police Station (need based), the number of Police Stations needed in the country with minimum required infrastructure, developing a model recruitment system, replacing the outdated equipment with a more modern and sophisticated one, insulating the police from political and other extraneous influences, improvement of the negative image of the police in general public, improvement in the training facilities and procedures etc. were also addressed at length by these Commissions/Committees and their reports are available with the Government.

A modified ‘Modernization of State Police Forces’ scheme was started by the central government in 2000-01. One of the objectives was to help police forces in meeting the emerging challenges to internal security in the form of terrorism, Naxalismetc. The scheme aims to modernize police forces in terms of:

  • Mobility (including purchase of bullet proof and mine proof vehicles)
  • Weaponry
  • Communication Systems
  • Training
  • Forensic Science Laboratory/ Finger Printing Bureau
  • Equipments
  • Buildings

Under this scheme, States have been clubbed into different categories and Centre-State cost sharing is category specific. Since 2005-06, States have been categorized as category ‘A’ and ‘B’ with 100% and 75% Central funding respectively. All the North Eastern States, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim have been placed in category ‘A’ and thus, are entitled to receive 100% Central assistance for implementation of their annual approved plans.

S No Components Items
1 Construction of Non-residential buildings Police Stations, Outposts, District Police Office, Barracks, Police lines, Kennels, Firing range, Administrative blocks, Other police buildings
2 Construction of Residential buildings Quarters for Lower (Constables & Head Constables) and Upper subordinates (Inspectors, Sub-Inspectors and Asst. Sub-Inspectors)
3 Mobility Heavy vehicles, medium vehicles, light vehicles, two wheelers, mine proof vehicles, riot control vehicles, ambulances, water cannons, water tankers, mobile forensic vehicles, vans, Bullet proof vehicles, Mini bus
4 Weaponry / Arms 9 mm pistols, 9 mm carbines, 7.62 SLRs, INSAS rifles, AK-47 rifles, MP-5 pistols, Tear gas guns, Under Barrel Grenade Launchers, 7.62 Assault rifles, AK-47, sniper rifles, 51 nun mortars, automatic grenade launchers, Glock Pistols — 19, 5.56 nun Insas LMGs, Anti-riot guns, Night Vision Sight for Rifles
5 Ammunition / Munitions (only for Naxal affected districts) 5.56 SA ball, 5.56 blank, .303 blank, 7.62 SA ball BDR, 7.62 SA ball blank, Detonators, Grenades, cartridges, bomb illuminating. Dual shell, dummy shell electrical, stun shell electrical, TS shell, 2 in one shell, stun grenade, spade, 3 way grenade
6 Police Equipment Security Equipment: Bomb disposal kits, Door Frame Metal Detectors (DFMDs), Hand Held Metal Detectors (HHMDs), Deep Search Metal / Mine Detectors, Closed Circuit Television & Motion Sensor, X Ray Baggage Scanners, Video Cameras, Digital Cameras, Night Vision Devices, Explosive Detectors, Mine Sweepers, Portable Jammers / Jammer vehicle based, Blasting machines, Jamming devices, Dragon lights, GPS, Prodders, Explosive detector. NLJDs, Bomb suit, bomb basket, bomb blanket. GPS, inflatable tower light, Sat phones, cell jammers, vehicle mounted jammers, video recorders, video cameras, button camera, Under vehicle search mirror, baggage x-ray scanner, wire and cable detector, Save me quick GSM audio cell, sun glass DVR. Pen DVR, Snake camera recorder, digital voice recorder. Traffic Control Equipment: Movable barricades, Flashing lights, Traffic cones, Florescent jackets, Reflective Hand Gloves, Speed Radar Guns. Alco-sensors, breath analysers. General Policing Equipment: Vajra, Water Cannons, Poly carbonate shields, Modern lathis, Body protection and shin guards, Helmets, Mega Phones, Search (Dragon) Lights, BP Jackets CID Equipment: Finger Print Matching Machines, Finger print development kits Office Equipment & Automation: Fax, photocopiers, telephones.
7 Communication Equipment Static set (HF/UHF), Static sets (VHF) and Mobile sets (Hand held) UHF repeaters, Tetra hand held sets, PA system
8 Training Infrastructure Construction of buildings for training schools,firing range. Training gadgets like firing simulators, forensic training labs, gymnasiums, computer labs,swimming pools, auditoriums, amphitheaters, assault, obstacle courses, modem training class rooms with audio visual facilities
9 Equipment for Special Branches / Intelligence gathering Bugging and debugging devices, Portable X-ray scanner, Voice loggers, minute sound hearing transmitter, GSM interceptors
10 Upgradation of Anti-Corruption Bureau Equipment as required.
11 Home Guards Equipments under mobility, training, securityequipments are generally included under this component.
12 FSL facilities Buildings for State Forensic Science Laboratories, Regional Forensic Science Laboratories, District Forensic Science Laboratories, Specialized laboratories like DNA, Cyber cells etc. Forensic Science equipments for DNA labs, brain mapping facilities, Polygraph machine, Automatic FingerprintIdentification System, cyber labs
13 Mega City Policing Items under mobility, security, surveillance, communication equipments etc. are included wider the Mega City Policing component.
14 Desert Policing Items under mobility, security, surveillance, communication equipments etc. are included under the Desert Policing component.
15 Indo-Nepal/Bhutan Border Districts Items under mobility, security, surveillance, communication equipments etc. are included under the Border District Policing component.

Recently, CAG decided to evaluate the working of the scheme and commissioned ‘performance audit’ reviews covering select general category and special category States. Each review covers a contiguous five year period between 2000 and 2007, but varies across selected states.

For the periods under review, each state had a plan outlay (the total amount proposed to be spent in modernizing the state’s police forces). However, in most cases, the actual release of funds fell significantly short of this outlay – in some cases the Centre did not contribute its share, in others the States lagged behind. For instance, in the case of Bihar, the Centre released only 56% of its share; while in the case of Rajasthan and West Bengal, the States did not release any funds at all.

The graph below shows the actual releases by the Centre and the States (as percentages of their share in the proposed outlays):

Further, even the funds that were released were not fully utilized. Thus, the amount finally spent fell significantly short of the initial proposal. The graph below shows the actual expenditure by State:

Following are some of the other main findings from the CAG report:

Table 1:  Summary of main findings in the CAG audit for different states for Modernisation of State Police Forces

Purpose for which money was sanctioned Summary of CAG Findings
Planning (Every state has to propose an Annual Action Plan every year.The plan is approved by the Ministry of Home Affairs and money is released as per the plan.) Submissions by the states to the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) were delayed. There were also delays in the clearance granted by the MHA. In various states such as, a) Andhra Pradesh – the government spent Rs 32 crore on works not covered by the Annual Action Plan. b) Bihar – Persistent delays in preparation of the Plan by the state police. c) West Bengal – the plans drawn up by the state did not include items covered under the scheme.
Mobility Overall shortage of vehicles was observed. Most of the new vehicles replaced the old ones, and no additions were made. The police response time was too long in some states. To give examples from some states: a) Andhra Pradesh – 58 percent of vehicles procured were utilised for replacing old vehicles. b) Bihar – the shortage of vehicles was 43 percent. c) Uttar Pradesh – 2400 vehicles were procured against a shortage of nearly 10,000 vehicles.203 ambassador cars were procured, though only 55 were approved by the MHA.
Residential and non-residential buildings There were considerable delays in construction of buildings in most states. Consequently, police forces’ own security was in jeopardy.Satisfaction levels with the housing provided were also very low. In states such as: a) Andhra Pradesh – 53 percent of staff quarters and 43 percent of official buildings were not completed (2007). b) Bihar – The total requirement of housing was nearly 60,000. Only six percent of this were included in the Plan, and only 1045 units were completed by 2006. c) Jharkhand – District Control rooms remained non-functional even after spending Rs. 2 crorebecause of shortage of manpower.
Weapons It was observed that the police force in states continue to depend on outdated weapons. Shortages of weapons also happened as acquisition from ordnance factories was very slow. The weapons that were procured were mostly kept in the district headquarters. In some states such as, a) Bihar – AK-47s were kept at the disposal of bodyguards of VIPs. b) West Bengal – Adequate weapons were not supplied to extremist prone police stations.
Communication Police Telecommunication Networks were not set up successfully in some states. In others, network was functional only up to the district level. Shortages of various communication equipments were also observed. In some states such as, a) Bihar – The Police Telecommunication Network system (costing Rs. 4.96 crore) remained non-functional due to non-construction of tower. b) Maharashtra – Of the 850 purchased Remote Station Units, 452 were lying in stores.
Forensic Science Laboratory/ Finger Printing Bureau In most States the Forensic Science Laboratories lacked adequate infrastructure. In the absence of automatic finger print identification systems, investigation was being done manually in some States. In some states such as, a) Maharashtra – There were significant delays in receipt and installation. There was also shortage (284 vacant posts) of technical manpower. b) West Bengal – Performance of the Forensic Science Laboratory was poor and in some cases, the delay in issue of investigation reports was as high as 45 months.
Training It was observed that the percentage of police personnel trained was very low. Training infrastructure was also inadequate. In some states such as, a) Bihar – Only 10 per cent of total force was trained. b) West Bengal – Live training was not imparted for handling useful weapons and this severely affected the performance of police forces.

Sources: CAG Compendium of Performance Audit Reviews on Modernisation of Police Force; PRS.

Note: The audit has been done broadly from 2000 to 2007. Consequently, the period of audit for different states may vary.

Some of the key Technology products are:


Hand held Ground Penetration Radar

Electronic Nose to smell offensive chemicals

Controlled Air Delivery

For UAV based Visual Surveillance: Netra

Passive Night Visions Binocular

Helmet Mounted Goggle

Hand held thermal imager

Perimeter Security System